2 edition of Practical observations on the injurious effects of chloroform inhalation during labour. found in the catalog.
Practical observations on the injurious effects of chloroform inhalation during labour.
Offprint from Dublin Quarterly Journal of Medical Science, May 1863.
Use of Sulphuric Ether and Chloroform during Civil War, by Dr. Michael Echols. Topic: Documented evidence of exactly what was known and when regarding the use of chloroform and/or ether for surgery during the first year of the Civil War. The postexposure chloroform breath concentrations ranged from –21 μg/m 3 for normal showers and to 10 μg/m 3 for inhalation‐only exposure, while the pre‐exposure concentrations were all less than the minimum detection limit of μg/m 3.
But, without proper precautions, the inhalation of chloroform is undoubtedly attended with danger, on account of the rapidity of its action when not sufficiently diluted with air, and, also, on account of its effects accumulating for about twenty seconds after it is discontinued, which accumulation would be most formidable, if the air taken. Chronic inhalation of chloroform in humans results in hepatotoxicity and central nervous symptoms such as depression and irritability. Meanwhile, chronic oral exposure to chloroform in humans results in effects on the blood, livers and kidneys. Chloroform is classified as a Group 2B, probable carcinogen.
A PBPK model for chloroform has been developed that describes the dosimetry of chloroform in mice and rats by various routes of exposure (i.e., inhalation, oral gavage, and ip injection) and can be scaled to humans (Corley et al., ). A pharmacodynamic (PD) model quantitatively describes toxic effects. diagnoses of chloroform poisoning. The blood levels of chloroform poisoning were not measured because of nonavailability of the facility. Abnormalities of liver injury generally peak 72–96 h after chloroform exposure and return to normal within 6–8 weeks.1 In our patient, ingestion of chloroform caused signiﬁcant liver injury.
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Original and Selected Communications from The New England Journal of Medicine — Practical Observations on the Injurious Effects of Chloroform Inhalation during Labor logo logoAuthor: Robert Johns. Art cal Observations on the Injurious Effects of Chloroform Inhalation during Labour Article in The Dublin Quarterly Journal of Medical Science 35(2) May with 5 Reads.
Art XIII.-Practical Observations on the Injurious Effects of Chloroform Inhalation during Labour Robert Johns 1, 2 Dublin Quarterly Journal of Medical Science vol pages – () Cite this articleAuthor: Robert Johns, Robert Johns.
Smith P. On the employment of ether by inhalation in obstetric practice, with cases and clinical observations, Snow J. On the administration of chloroform during parturition, Stallard JH. Practical observations on the administration and effects of chloroform, especially in its application in cases of natural labour, The major effect from acute inhalation exposure to chloroform in humans is central nervous system depression.
At very high levels (40, ppm), chloroform exposure may result in death, with concentrations in the range of 1, to 30, ppm producing anesthesia, and lower concentrations. Following acute dermal exposure to chloroform, local effects may include irritation and redness.
Prolonged contact may result in systemic toxicty, dermatitis and burns. Acute ocular exposure to chloroform may cause a stinging sensation and exposure to chloroform liquid can cause irritation of the conjunctival tissue, corneal necrosis and ulcers.
Studies suggest that inhalation uptake of volatile DBPs such as chloroform in drinking water during showering can be an important exposure. From his own observations some years ago, it appeared to be not so depressing, and it was safe. Bo,t there were difficulties in procuring it, and in applying it.
Dr. Williams then alluded to the effect of chloroform on the blood, and asked what researches the Committee had. John Snow (15 March – 16 June ) was an English physician and a leader in the development of anaesthesia and medical is considered one of the founders of modern epidemiology, in part because of his work in tracing the source of a cholera outbreak in Soho, London, inwhich he curtailed by removing the handle of a water pump.
Figure 1. Exhaled chloroform breath time profiles after (A) inhalation exposure during a shower, (B) dermal exposure during a shower, and (C) dermal exposure during a bath. Each symbol represents a different experiment run.
The normalized concentration was calculated by dividing the breath concentration by the water concentration. Studies in several species of laboratory animals have demonstrated that exposure of dams to chloroform during gestation can result in death or growth retardation of the conceptus. There are also studies indicating the potential for.
in utero. chloroform exposure via inhalation to induce malformations such as imperforate anus and cleft palate. Chloroform was widely used for many years as an anesthetic.
Because it led to liver injury (often delayed) and cardiac sensitization, this use has been generally eliminated. Chloroform has some use as a solvent, but most of it is used as a chemical intermediate.
Although its use as a solvent in industry is not extensive, it may be found as a constituent in solvent mixtures, and it is still. the lancet anæsthesia in natural parturition. with an analysis of twenty-seven cases where chloroform was administered by dr.
sachs in the berlin lying-in hospital robert barnes m.d. lond. lecturer on midwifery at the hunterian school of medicine, obstetric-surgeon to the western general dispensary.
exposure at which hepatic effects were seen was 30 mg/kg/day, with a NOAEL of 15 mg/kg/day, in the dog (Heywood et al. Results of chronic-duration oral studies have also identified hepatic effects as a sensitive effect of chloroform exposure, with effects.
The likelihood and degree of the injury may be increased by the use of alcohol before or after exposure to chloroform. Any person showing or feeling the effects of inhaling chloroform should be removed to fresh air immediately and given prompt medical attention.
If breathing stops, mouth-to-mouth resuscitation should be given. Exposure by inhalation and oral administration resulted in CHCl 3 and CDCl 3 concentrations in the tissues which were significantly higher than when exposure was by either inhalation or oral administration alone.
This is the first study to follow the contribution of each of two routes of chloroform exposure on chloroform distribution and. Original and Selected Communications from The New England Journal of Medicine — On Chloroform Inhalation during Labor; With Especial Reference to the Paper by Dr.
Johns, of Dublin, Lately. inhalation exposure to chloroform. Larson et al. () investigated the ability of acute exposure to chloroform vapors to produce toxicity. and regenerative cell proliferation in the liver, kidneys, and nasal passage of female B6C3F 1 mice. Groups of 5 animals were exposed to 0,2, 10, 30, or 90 ppm chloroform via inhalation for.
1 INTRODUCTION. Chloroform, also known as trichloromethane or CHCl 3, is a colorless, sweet‐smelling, volatile liquid at room temperature (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), ; National Toxicology Program (NTP), ; Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA), a; World Health Organization (WHO), ).In the past, chloroform was.
After observations for a few months of the exhibition of ether in this uniform way, I was enabled in the course of last autumn to submit to the profession a description of etherisation divided into degrees, which I still consider to be correct, and to be equally applicable to the effects of chloroform, and other agents of a similar kind.
Levels of Significant Exposure to Chloroform-Inhalation. 25 Levels of Significant Exposure to Chloroform-Oral. 66 Metabolic Pathways of Chloroform Biotransformation.
Conceptual Representation of a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Model for Hypothetical Chemical Substance. Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas or nitrous, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N 2 room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, with a slight metallic scent and elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidizer similar to molecular oxygen.
It is soluble in water. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially.Exposure at high concentrations may result in cardiac sensitization to epinephrine and similar compounds, as well as liver and kidney injury (see Table 14).In cases of chronic or repeated exposure to chloroform, liver injury is most typical (cf.
the effects of carbon tetrachloride).